Privacy Issues Surrounding Biometric Technology

The terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center have provoked in-depth discussion and study of existing security measures, their deficiencies, and how to enhance security to prevent similar terrorist attacks from occurring in the future. Biometric technology has risen to the top of the list as a possible solution. The government is not the only entity exploring biometric security systems. The financial services industry see biometrics as a way to curb identity theft. Biometrics are intrinsic physical characteristics used to identify individuals. The most commonly used biometric is fingerprints but others include, handprints, facial features, iris & retinal scans, and voice recognition.

Soon after 9/11 there were calls for the issuance of national ID cards containing biometric information on an RFID chip implanted on the card. The argument is that national ID cards will increase security by identifying individuals with their unique fingerprints which are much more difficult to counterfeit than standard photo ID cards. There is also a movement toward biometric passports. It looks like biometric passports are coming soon. National ID cards may follow.

Biometric identification is nothing new. Humans have been identifying other humans biometrically since the beginning of time. You recognize people you know by their facial features, their voice, and other biometric features. What’s new is introducing technology into the mix that compares a given biometric with a stored database of biometrics to verify the identity of an individual. An individual place their finger on a fingerprint scanner and the image is compared with the database to verify the person’s identity. Promising as it is, biometric technology has not been without hiccups but biometrics are advancing quickly and becoming more and more prevalent in security systems.

Fingerprints are the most commonly used biometric identifiers. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) conducted a study that showed single fingerprint biometric systems had a 98.6 percent accuracy rate. The accuracy rate rose to 99.6 percent when 2 fingerprints were used and an almost perfect 99.9 percent when 4 or more fingerprints were used. The study results show that biometric identification is nearly perfect which is not surprising given the uniqueness of human fingerprints.

The US-VISIT program, which is an acronym for United States Visitor & Immigrant Status Indicator Technology, currently requires foreign visitors to the US to present a biometric passport containing 2 fingerprints and a digital photo for identification purposes before being granted admission to the U.S. Of course the biometrics are compared against a vast network of government databases full of known and suspected terrorists and other criminals.

On the surface biometric technology may sound like a panacea but it’s use has raised significant privacy concerns that need to be addressed. Here are six major privacy concerns: storage, vulnerability, confidence, authenticity, linking, and ubiquity.

Critics wonder how the data will be stored and how vulnerable it will be to theft or abuse. Confidence issues center around the implications of false positives and false negatives. Can the biometric data be used to link to other information about the individual such as marital status, religion, employment status, etc.? And finally ubiquity. What are the implications of leaving electronic “bread crumbs” to mark a trail detailing every movement an individual makes?

Until these issues are addressed, privacy advocates will lead a charge to resist biometric technology claiming it as a way for the government to assume a “Big Brother” type of rule as described in George Orwell’s novel 1984. But protest as they may, it’s likely national security concerns and the ability of biometric systems to enhance the security of US border and possibly prevent another major terrorist attack will win out over privacy concerns.

Earn Money Online From Writing Product Reviews

It's surprising to see how many people spend their time writing up their opinions and feelings on the latest Stephen King book, or the latest Red Hot Chilli Peppers album; and then just upload them to their personal blog or article website (like this one). Most people do not realize that there is a website that actually pays people to write their opinion on thousands of products which are listed on their own website.

These product review websites are free to join, and they will pay you every time another member reads and rates one of your reviews. You can also be rewarded at the end of the month, when a selection of the month's best reviews will earn a 'premium fund'; usually around 5 or 10 pounds.

It's probably quite hard to understand why these websites are paying you just to write your opinion on a product. It is also quite hard to explain why they do so, but I will try to do my best. By writing a review and leaving feedback for a product, the manufacturers are getting publicity and (usually) are getting some free praise. These reviews are used on the database of thousands of products, and they help web-browsers to form an opinion on the best products. The product review website would earn a great amount from commission bonuses; people go to the site, read a positive review and then click the link on the site directly to a shop (such as eBay or Amazon) and then they purchase that item. The product review site will then earn a percentage of commission from this sale, and so this is how they can afford to pay its users for writing product reviews – everyone's happy.

There are not many requirements to use these product-reviewing websites; you need to be at least 13 years old and need to be based in one of the supported countries. Obviously it would help if you have a passion for writing, and that you are not too impatient. To earn good money you need to write quality product reviews, and you need to build up a reputation on the website. The more users you get to read and rate your reviews, the more money you will earn. Therefore it pays to be popular.

These product reviews websites already have some very well established communities on them, and this is done thanks to the points system. Every review you read and comment and every rating you receive will all earn you virtual community points. There is a color scale which matches the points earned, and the more points you have the more important the color is that you receive. For example, join the website and write a review and you will probably still be on a white color. Write hundreds of reviews and you will no-doubt become a golden color. Not only does this color represent an active and responsive user, but it will earn you a lot more money. People will be more likely to read and rate your reviews, then e-learning you more far money then usual.

When your earnings reach a certain rate you can cash them in; through Amazon vouchers or you can get paid by BACS (a direct payment into your personal bank account). This is all completely secure and secure, as the websites have implemented some very strict security measures. The websites are also listed as some of the most popular, and gain millions of visitors every month. These figures show no signs of failing or dying down, so I highly recommend that you jump on the band wagon. Start writing your own opinion on any of the thousands of products listed – from TV's to Shampoo to Internet Search Engines. Every individual is catered for, and even if it is not you can still submit another of your own products if they are not already listed. Join a product reviewing website today for free, and start getting paid to write product reviews – you can not go wrong.

Online Film and Photography Higher Education Opportunities

Online schools and colleges are available to provide students with the accredited educational training they need to obtain a degree in the field of film and photography. Students can gain an education at the associate, bachelor, or master degree level in this field. By enrolling in an accredited online school students can study and train for the career of their dreams from the comfort of home. Training for a career in this field will prepare students for a variety of career in a number of specialized areas.

Online educational programs are available to train students for careers in film and photography. Prospective film and photography students can learn a number of things about gaining an accredited education in this area of the field.

  1. Accredited training is available to students at the associate, bachelor, and master degree level of education.
  2. Career training will teach students how to capture images or videos for a variety of uses in their desired career.
  3. Coursework will vary but may consist of budgeting, camerawork, producing, lighting, scriptwriting, videography, photography, and much more.
  4. Possible careers in this area of the field can include working as key grips, editors, gaffers, photographers, videographers, and many other related professionals.
  5. Gaining an accredited degree in film and photography will provide students with the skills needed to start a successful career.

Students who choose to earn a degree in this field can do so by seeking an accredited online school or college that offers their desired training. With a degree students will be able to enter the workforce prepared for an exciting career.

There are numerous accredited training programs online that offer an education in the field of photography. There are a number of things to know prior to enrolling into an educational program in this area of the field.

  1. Students who choose to enroll in a photography program can earn an accredited associate, bachelor, or master degree.
  2. Training will prepare students to take photographs for various personal or professional reasons.
  3. Training will require students to complete coursework that may include history of photography, film developing, creative expression, digital camerawork, and much more.
  4. With training in these areas students can pursue various careers such as photojournalist, wedding photographer, portrait photographer, artist, and more.
  5. With an accredited education in this area of the field students will be ready to enter into the workforce.

By enrolling in an accredited online school or college and obtaining a degree in photography students will have the opportunity to receive the education necessary to pursue the career of their dreams.

Accredited online learning programs allow students to gain the quality education they need and desire. Accreditation is provided to qualifying online film and photography programs that prove they can provide the best education possible. Agencies like the National Association of Schools of Art and Design ( http://nasad.arts-accredit.org/ ) can fully accredited online schools and colleges. Students can research various degree programs and enroll today to start the path to an exciting career.

DISCLAIMER: Above is a GENERIC OUTLINE and may or may not depict precise methods, courses and/or focuses related to ANY ONE specific school(s) that may or may not be advertised at PETAP.org.

Copyright 2010 – All rights reserved by PETAP.org.

Sports in Angola – Interesting Facts & Figures!

Road to London 2012!

Barcelona 1992

Did you know- Between July 25 and August 9, 1992, the Angolan Olympic Committee, sent 29 athletes to the Summer Games in Barcelona, Spain. The African nation competed in seven sports: basketball (11), boxing (1), roller hockey (11), judo (4), swimming (3), sailing (3), and track & field (6).

Basketball

Did you know- Basketball is very popular because basketball is a traditional sport with a long history in the African nation. Curiously, from the 1980s to the 2000s, Angola -a war-torn nation — boasted one of the best basketball teams in the Third World. By 1992, the Angolan squad came in 10th place, among 12 teams, in theMen’s Olympic Games Basketball Tournament in Barcelona (Spain). Eight years ago, they had won the silver medal in the Under-20 African Championship. By 1987, against all odds, Angola -a Portuguese-speaking republic located in southern Africa– won the gold medal in men’s basketball at the African Games in Nairobi (Kenya). Before 1987, the men’s basketball squad of Angola had placed 20th in the World Championships in Spain. In the Spanish city of Ferrol, the Africans were the most popular basketball players; there Angola had defeated Australia 74-69. In addition to this, the country -one of the least-developed states in Africa-finished 13th in the universal competition in South America in the early 1990s. By 1996, it placed 11th in the Games of the XXVI Olympiad in Atlanta, Georgia (US).

Football

Did you know- Angola’s first major international success came at the FIFA World Cup in 2006. During that global event, the men’s football squad came in 23rd place, between Croatia (Europe) and Tunisia (North Africa). The best players were Flavio da Silva Amado, Joao Ricardo Pereira dos Santos Batalha, and Fabrice Alcebiades Maieco, in that order.

Los Angeles 1984

Did you know- The Angolan Olympic Committee, under pressure from Cuba and the Soviet Union, boycotted the 1984 Summer Games in the Los Angeles, California, USA. Four years ago, Angola made its Olympic debut in the Games of the XXII Olympiad in Moscow, USSR (present-day Russia). On the other hand, Angola is one of the youngest members of the Olympic family.

Men’s Handball

Did you know- The men’s handball team came in 15th place at the Under-20 World Championships.

Sports

Did you know- The most popular sports are soccer, athletics, basketball, roller hockey, and handball.

Women’s Handball

Did you know- The national squad came in seventh place in women’s handball at the 1996 Summer Games in the United States of America. During that international event, Angola, under coach Alberto Junior’s tutelage, defeated America (host nation) 24-23. The country also qualified for the Sydney Olympics in 2000. By the 1990s, the women’s handball team from Angola competed in five world championships (1990, 1993, 1995, 1997, and 1999). At the 1997 World Cup, the national delegation placed 15th, ahead of Japan, South Korea, and Canada.